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Glenn Gould

Glenn Gould | Musical Education | Career | Compositions, Writings, Documentaries, Films, Awards | Eccentric? | Thoughts and Ideas | Bibliography | Discography | Links



“Suddenly you get a sound that no one has ever heard before..it’s boney, it’s taut.. it is very rhythmical, it’s clean, it’s transparent. Here is a skinny scrawny guy from Canada who looks as if he is about to die by the time he comes on stage – so pale.. he sits almost on the floor, he sings while he is playing. We’ve never heard anything like this. ‘Where did this guy come from?’” [i]

                                                                                                             Peter Elyakim Taussig [ii]

 

Glenn Gould
(25 September 1932 - 4 October 1982)

Since  the time of his death in October 4, 1982, Glenn Gould has been the subject of a plethora of articles, books, festivals and special media productions. These projects, no doubt, endeavor to promote a better understanding of Gould and his contributions to music and culture. However, it appears that Glenn Gould continues to be perceived as an enigma. On the surface, Gould appears to be a flamboyant entertainer expressing subjects. One is forced to wonder, was he really serious about his work outside of piano performance? Was he actually a troubled mind who squandered his pianistic genius on trivial pursuits? Or did he has something of consequence and value to communicate to the world?


Musical Education



Gould was born Glenn Gold in Toronto, Ontario. His family later changed their name from Gold to Gould to avoid the anti-semitism that swept Canada in the 1930s. Glenn (Herbert) Gould, was born into a musical family: Edvard Grieg was a first cousin of his mother’s grandfather, his father was an amateur violonist  and his mother played piano and organ. Gould’s mother was his only teacher until he was 10. When he was 3, it became evident that he possessed exceptional musical aptitude, including absolute pitch and even the ability to read staff notation. At 5, he began to compose, and played his own little compositions for family and friends. At the age of 6 Gould was taken to his first live musical performance which was Josef’s Hofmann’s last appearance in Toronto. It created a lasting and important impression upon the boy.




The holders of the silver medal of the Toronto Conservatory of Music, 1944. Gould is on the top row, first on the right (source: Cott J., 1984, p. 73)
At the age of 10, Gould could play the complete Book I of J. S. Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier. He also began his musical studies at the Toronto Conservatory of Music, later renamed the Royal Conservatory of Music (RCMT). He studied piano 1943-52 with Alberto Guerrero, obtaining an ATCM at 12 with the highest marks in Canada. He also studied organ 1942-9 with Frederick C. Silvester and theory 1940-7 with Leo Smith. According to John Beckwith, also a former Guerrero pupil, Gould was greatly influenced by the Chilean-Canadian pianist-teacher. He adopted several aspects of Guerrero’s piano style including the low sitting position at the keyboard, the flat-finger articulation and the fluency and clarity of rapid finger passages.





Source: The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35). New York: Sony Classical, 1993
Gould also acquired Guerrero’s “pure finger technique” as opposed to “weight technique.” Gould believed that the rebound in piano technique was closer to what actually happens in playing than theories about “free-fall weight” technique (Silverman, correspondence to the author, dated December 2, 1984). Gould was also influenced by Artur Schnabel’s musical approach. Like Schnabel, viewed music as a private activity, not a public one. He believed one should avoid performance activity that is focused on displaying the performer as a virtuoso. Even though Gould was a great virtuoso he did not prefer composers whose work is traditionally considered part of a virtuoso’s repertoire (e. g., Chopin and Liszt). Both Gould and Schnabel needed very little repetition in practice sessions and were able to absorb music away from the instrument. Both artists considered themselves first musicians and then pianists. The piano was only a medium by which they could convey their analysis and conceptions of the music. Of siginificant influence upon the teenage Gould were Rosalyn Tureck’s recordings of Bach (“upright with a sense of repose and positiveness”) and Leopold Stokowski, about whom Gould would later write and produce. 

Gould’s childhood was dominated by music. In a film about Gould produced by Vincent Tovell, Gould’s father comments that as a child Glenn would retreat into his bedroom to learn an unfamiliar musical score. Gould would not return out of his room until he commited the entire score for memory. Robert Fulford, a distinguished Canadian author, met Gould when they were both 9 and wrote : “Even as a child Glenn was isolated because he was working like hell to be a great man. He had a tremendous feeling and loving affection for music.. It was an utter, complete feeling. He knew who he was and where he was going” [iii]. Obviously, he carried his productive learning habbits of intense involvement and concentration from early childhood into adulthood.

In spite of  Gould’s apparent abilities as a child performer, his parents protected him from the life of a child prodigy by keeping his public performances to a minimum. One of the few exceptions was his participation in the Kiwanis Music Festival held annually in Toronto, where he won the piano competition (February of 1944). Payzant (1978) wrote that although Gould was only twelve years old he ranked highest among several older advanced musicians. It was the only competition Gould would enter, for he later came to be strongly opposed to the idea of young musicians competing with each other and indeed to competition of any sort.

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Career

Gould made his debut as an organist, not as a pianist, in a Casavant Society recital at Eaton Auditorium, Toronto, on December 12, 1945. Robert Fulford (1983) wrote that people were greatly impressed and astonished by Gould, the child, who could play with such brilliant technique and interpretive intuition. On May 8, 1946, Gould performed, for the first time, as piano soloist with the Toronto Conservatory Orchestra at Massey Hall at the conservatory. He played the first movement of Beethoven’s Fourth Piano Concerto in G major, conducted by Ettore Mazzoleni . Of this performance Edward W. Wodson of the “Evening Telegram” wrote: “ he showed the music lover that scale passages and arpeggios on the humble piano may have spiritual as well as technical beauty and character. His phrasing was eloquent as poetry chanted by the poet himself”.

Gould in the age of thirty during a recording session 
(source: Cott J., 1984, p. 19) 
Gould during a rehearsal
(source: The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35).
New York: Sony Classical, 1993)


On 14 January 1947 Gould performed the entire concerto with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Bernard Heinze. His first public recital was in 1947 and included Scarlatti, Beethoven, Chopin and Liszt. Gould gave his first network radio recital for the CBC in 1950, beginning his long relationship with broadcasting and recording. He played Mozart’s Sonata K281 and Hindemith’s Third Sonata  on a studio piano with heavy, dark bass. When he played he found that by suppressing the bass and boosting the treble he could make the piano sound the way he had tried but failed to do in the studio and that in this way he had overcome the piano’s limitations and improved upon his original contribution as performer. His approach to performing and recording was to be dominated there after by this discovery and by his awareness of its implications.

By the age of 20 Gould’s performing experiences had included tours of western and eastern Canada, nine appearances as piano soloist with orchestras (Hamilton, Toronto, Vancouver), several public recitals – including his Montreal debut 6 November 1952 and, for the CBC, four or five studio recitals. His interest in modern music was well established ; his repertoire included the complete piano works of Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. But it was not his intention to become a concert pianist. Composition was at that time for him a livelier concern, and already he was demonstrating remarkable abilities as a musical analyst  and commentator. His first commercial recording was made in 1951 and released in 1953 on the Hallmark label. Between 1953 and 1963 he performed often at the annual summer Sheakespeare festival at Stratford, Ontario. In January 1955, Gould made his American debut, with recitals in Washington DC and New York. His unorthodox programme (16th century composer Sweelinck ; the late- Renaissance English composer Orlando Gibbons ; five J. S. Bach’s sinfonias ; J. S. Bach’s Partita  in G major ; the Berg Piano Sonata, Opus 1 ; Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Opus 109; and the Webern Variations for piano, Opus 27) , distinctive style, idiosyncratic interpretations and flamboyant platform manner immediately marked him as an iconoplast. The critical review for these recitals recounts that Gould was totally equipped as a technician and subordinated his virtuosity for the sake of expressiveness. On January 12, 1955, the day following his New York debut recital, he was offered a contract with the Columbia Masterworks (later CBS Masterworks) label, for which he recorded exclusively for the rest of his life. Gould’s first recording in June 1955 of Bach’s Goldberg Variations marked the beginning of his exclusive association with Columbia and launched his international concert career. This was a work that was not performed in public, with the exception of performances by Rosalyn Tureck. The fact that Gould chose the Goldberg Variations as his first commercial recording exemplified his unique penchant for championing relatively unknown compositions. The recording was an immediate commercial and artistic success and it helped project Gould among the world’s foremost ranking contemporary pianists. His second recording project with Columbia was the last piano sonatas of Beethoven (Opus 109, 110, 111). In 1956, Gould published his most important composition, the String Quartet, Opus 1. Gould considered  this late-romantic sounding piece an example of his early period writing. For the next nine years, he toured throughout North America. In March 1956 Gould performed Beethoven’s Piano Concerto #4 with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra under the baton of Paul Paray.
Gould with L. Bernstein during a recording session in 1957 (source: Cott J., 1984, p.13)



In January of 1957 Gould gave his first concert with New York Philharmonic with Leonard Bernstein as conductor of Beethoven’s Piano Concerto #2. This was the beginning of Gould’s association with Bernstein. Their performing together ended in the infamous 1962 concert of the Brahms Piano Concerto in D minor. Bernstein disavowed himself from the extremely slow tempi on which Gould insisted. He announced on the stage, just prior to the performance, that he did not agree with Gould’s musical ideas but would go along with them for the sake of musical experimentation. A scandal erupted and the critics had a heyday of maligning both Bernstein and Gould .



Gould in Moscow in 1957(source: Cott J., 1984, p. 45) 
Gould was the first North American pianist to perform in the Soviet Union – in the midst of the Cold War . In 1957, he played four concerts in Moscow and four in Leningrad. Gould’s Berlin debut was in May 1957 when he performed Beethoven’s Piano Concerto #3 in c minor with the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Herbert von Karajan. H. H. Stuckenschmidt, Germany’s most respected music critic, was moved to call Gould the greatest pianist since Ferruccio Busoni. Between 1957 and 1959 he performed in Vienna, Salzburg, Brussels, Stockholm, Florence, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Lucerne and elsewhere. Gould’s repertoire immediately attracted attention. He played little early-Romantic or impressionistic music, preferring the Baroque, Classical, late-Romantic and 20th century Austro-German repertoires, along with some unusual fare (Elizabethan virginal music, transcriptions, contemporary Canadian music) . His highly individual piano style, interpretative liberties and published pronouncements made him a controversial musical figure, but he was also widely admired, by audiences, colleagues and critics for his technical virtuosity, probing intellect, command of musical architecture, rhythmic dynamism, precise fingerwork and extreme clarity of part-playing. Though idiosyncratic, Gould was to some degree influential and many pianists of the generation that grew up with his concerts and recordings (Zoltan Kocsis, Ivo Pogorelich, Andras Schiff, Peter Serkin and others) have acknowledged a debt to him. His insistence on interpretative freedom and his repertoire inspired other pianists to explore beyond the confines of traditional 19th century concert fare, which was absent from his own recitals and recordings. Opinions as to Gould’s influence vary, however. Lipman, 91, writes that “Gould’s playing has been largely without influence on colleagues and the countless piano students of his generation. Even where he might be thought at first glance to have had such an influence – in the tendency toward drier and clearer performances of Bach – the trend was present and gaining strength long before him and stemmed more from general musicological and technological considerations than from the work of any one person” [iv].

During the award of a honorary PhD by the University of Toronto (source: The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35). New York: Sony Classical, 1993)

The years from 1959 to 1964 were marked by increased activity in speaking about music rather than performing it. Gould lectured at the Gardner Museum in Boston, the University of Cincinnati, Hunter College in New York, the University of Wisconsin, Wellesley College and the University of Toronto. The fact that he was interested in writing and giving lectures was dismissed as eccentric behavior not to be taken seriously by some critics. In 1963, the University of Toronto awarded Gould an honorary doctorate. By  1963, Gould’s concert activity had fallen off sharply, and at the age of 31, after a recital in Orchestra Hall, Chicago, Illinois, on March 28, 1964 (Beethoven’s Piano Sonata Opus 110, Krenek’s Third Piano Sonata, Bach’s Partita #4 in D Major and fugues from Bach’s The Art of the Fugue) , he ended his public performing career in order to devote his energies exclusively to writing, broadcasting, composing, conducting and experimenting with technology. This early retirement from public performance was prompted in part by a realization that the strenuous life of a touring musician was preventing him from realising his many other interests.

In fact, Gould did not think of himself primarily as a pianist. He also admitted that he had developed an intense dislike for performing and felt that he could better serve music in a recording studio than in the concert hall (“I used to take my pulse rate just before a concert out of scientific curiosity and it was always very fast. So there was obviously a kind of  unnatural excitement. But it wasn’t the sort that paralyzed me with fear, if only because I had a kind of indifference to the whole process. I was really counting off the years and the number of events within those years that would be necessary to make it possible for me to forget the whole thing..”). He went on to make dozens of studio recordings and became a prolific performer and commentator in films and broadcasts. He made a series of four programmes for British television (Conversations with Glenn Gould, 1966), a series of four films for French television (Chemins de la musique, 1974) and a series of three films for German and Canadian television (Glenn Gould plays Bach, 1979-1981), in addition to many series and individual programmes for CBC radio and television. Gould had published some writings since the early 1950s, but after 1964 their number increased significantly, as he worked out ideas about music and related issues in liner notes, in articles in a variety of periodicals, in interviews and, for a brief period in the mid-1960s, in public lectures. He also composed and arranged music for two feature films: “Slaughterhouse-Five” (1972) and “The Wars” (1982). In 1981, 26 years after his first recording of the Goldberg Variations
(source: The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35). New York: Sony Classical, 1993)
  , went into the same New York studio for his second recording of the work with which he had become so closely identified . Gould viewed the two interpretations as substantially different because he came to see the Variations not as separate and distinct exercises but as belonging to a larger whole, with one rhythmic pulse, harmony and ideology underlying the entire work and forming a definite unity of composition. Gould was also motivated in his decision to re-record the Goldberg Variations by the vast changes in recording technology during his previous recording. A few months before his death, Glenn Gould formed a chamber orchestra in Toronto consisting of some members of the Toronto Symphony with himself as conductor. He was particularly proud of their recording together of Wagner’s Siegfried Idyll , a work that had long been special to him and which he transcribed for piano and recorded. Glenn Gould gathered a large and loyal group of friends with whom he remained in contact over the telephone and whom he received in Toronto with eager enthusiasm. These friends describe him as gentle, kind, funny, charming, warm and loyal. He was a character to be sure, but one who never strayed from his pursuit of the ideal and one who cared deeply. He was a solitary man, but he touched and uplifted the lives of many. Glenn Gould died in Toronto on October 4, 1982, after having suffered a stroke.

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Compositions, Writings, Documentaries, Films, Awards

The first page of Gould's transcription to Handel's Suite in A major (source: Bazzana K., 1997, p. 172)
Gould’s mature period saw two major compositions: the String Quartet, Op. 1 (there was no Op. 2), 1953-5 and the lighthearted “So you want to write a fugue?”, written for “The Anatomy of the Fugue”, for the CBC-TV festival program, broadcast on March 4 1963 (for 4-part chorus, piano,string quartet). Other works are: Twelve-tone piano pieces  (1948), Rondo in D major for piano, Piano sonata, Basson sonata (1950). His creativity also found an outlet in cadenza writing: Cadenzas to the Concerto No.1, in C for piano and orchestra, Op.15, by L. V. Beethoven (1954). He also made piano transcriptions for works by Wagner, Ravel, Richard Strauss and other composers.

   Gould’s writings can stand as a worthy complement to his legacy of recordings. Like his piano interpretations, Gould’s articles are lucid, unconventional, and occasionally outrageous. He was not afraid of owning up to an unorthodox opinion. They range from the early “Dodecaphonist’s Dilemma”, written when he was 33, through the masterful “Prospects of Recording”, to the variety of shorter articles written for Piano Quarterly. Less well known, but also critically praised, is Gould’s work in radio documentary. In the 1960s Gould began to take a strong and active interest in radio and TV documantaries, almost all for the CBC. He was the deviser, compiler, interviewer, narrator, and even producer of many of these programs. Notable here is his "Solitude Trilogy", constisting of "The Idea of North", a meditation on the north and its people; "The Latecomers", about Newfoundland; and "The Quiet in the Land", on Mennonites in Manitoba. The Idea of North attracted Gould, with its implications of solitude, winter darkness and cold weather, all of which he associated with purity. All three use a technique which Gould called “contrapuntal radio”, in which several people are heard speaking at once. Gould’s recorded music has been featured in many films, during his life and after his death. In 1993 he was the subject of an award-winning fictional movie, “Thirty two short films about Glenn Gould”. He received countless tributes, awards (four Grammy Awards) and honours of every kind.

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Eccentric?

“I don’t think that my life style is like most other people’s and I’m rather glad for that. The two things, life style and work, have become one. Now if that’s eccentricity, then I’m eccentric. If eccentricity consists of wearing a scarf in an air-conditioned environment while recording, or playing with an overcoat on during my stay in Jerusalem, I’m guilty; but those things are organic to what I have to do”.[v]

Gould in the age of 14 with his dog Nicky (source: Cott J., 1984, p. 75) 
Glenn Gould was very afraid of being cold and wore very warm clothes, including gloves, at all times even when he was in warm places. He had the pre-performance ritual of soaking his hands in hot water. He adored Arrowroot cookies and animals. He never accepted students but he was giving lectures. He abhorred sunlight, airplanes and violence. Gould also disliked social functions. He had an aversion to being touched, and in later life he refused to talk to almost anyone in person, relying on the telephone and letters for communication. He conducted interviews with himself, wrote unusual personal advertisements about himself which he submitted to newspapers and recorded other people’s conversations in public places. He frequently hummed along while he played. Gould claimed this singing was unconscious and increased proportionately with the inability of the piano in question to realise the music as he intended.




Adjusting his chair (source: Cott J., 1984, p. 122)
He was also known for his peculiar body movements while playing and for his insistence on sameness. He would only play concerts while sitting on a folding chair his father made and he continued to use this chair even when the seat was nearly worn through. His chair is so closely identified with him that it’s shown in a place of honour in a glass case in the National Library of Canada.[vi].

He admired deeply Barbra Streisand and wrote an article about her for "High Fidelity" (“I adore everything she does..I don’t know of any other singer, with the exception of Elizabeth Schwarzkopf, who has impressed me as much...”) [vii]. Gould loved to use pseudonyms (Dr. Herbert von Hochmeister-a German critic, Theodore Slutz-a New York cab driver, Sir Nigel Twitt-Thornwaite-British conductor, Dr. Karlheinz Klopweisser-a German composer and critic and others). He enjoyed these creations, making tapes for which he spoke “in character”, writing fictitious interviews and even publishing certain articles under the name “Hebert von Hochmeister”.

Gould as Sir  Nigel  Twitt  Thornwaite (source: Cott J., 1984, p. 117) Gould as Theodore  Slutz (source: The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35). New York: Sony Classical, 1993) Gould as Dr. Karlheinz  Klopweisser (source: Cott J., 1984, p. 118)


Gould was addicted to many prescription drugs, some of which had contradictory effects on his health. He was highly concerned about his health throughout his life, such as his cognenital high blood pressure and the safety of his hands. Dr. Timothy Maloney (PhD), the director of the Music Division of the National Library of Canada has written about and discussed the possibility that Gould had Asperder’s Syndrome, a disorder related to Autism. This idea was first tentatively proposed by Gould’s biographer, Dr. Peter Ostwald (MD). According to Maloney, Gould’s eccentricities could be related to the symptoms displayed by persons with Asperger’s. But this theory is doubted by many psychiatrists today. [viii] 


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Thoughts and Ideas [ix]

On recording:
 
“By far the most important electronic contribution to the arts is the creation of a new and paradoxical condition of privacy. The great paradox about the electronic transmission of musical sound is that as it makes available to the most enormous audience, either simultaneously or in a delayed encounter, the identical musical experience, it encourages that audience to react not as captives and automans but as individuals capable of an unprecendented spontaneity of judgment”.

“Technology should not, in my view, be treated as a noncommittal, noncommited voyeur; its capacityfor dissection, for analysis, for the idealization of an impression, must be exploited”.

On art
:

“I believe that the justification of art is the internal combustion it ignites in the hearts of men and not its shallow, externalized, public manifestations. The purpose of art is not the release of a momentary ejection of adrenaline but is the gradual, lifelong construction of a state of wonder and serenity”

“Artists have a moral mission and art has an unrealized potential for the betterment of humankind. Each person must accept the challenge of contemplatively creating his own “divinity”. [x]

“The purpose of art is to serve its own end, from which each man will derive what he chooses to derive”.
 
Geoffrey Payzant, a member of the University of Toronto’s Philosophy Department  writes: “every Gould recording, like every Gould essay, script, film, documentary and composition, is part of his Promethean effort to share with us the ecstatic awareness of his own many-dimensional, tonal imaginative perspectives. Gould is the oldtime sage, in whom are united the philosopher, the poet and the musician. We diminish him when we confine him to one or another”.[xi]

 


                                                                                                                            Eleni Mitsiaki 
30 November 2005

                                                            


[ii]  Born in 1944 in Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia . Pianist, composer, friend and occasional collaborator with Glenn Gould. He has taken on the monumential project of using his new recording technique, which he calls “musical sculpting”, to record the complete keyboard works of Bach.

[iii] Angilette, Elizabeth. Glenn Gould: philosopher at the keyboard. London: The Scarecrow Press, 1992

[iv] Bazzana, Kevin. Glenn Gould: the performer in the work. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997

[v] Mach, Elyse. Great contemporary pianists speak for themselves. New York: Dover 1991

[viii] Article by Helen Mesaros in ‘Medical Post’: Did Glenn Gould have a form of autism?               http://www.medicalpost.com/mpcontent/article.jsp?content=/content/EXTRACT/RAWART/3618/24.html

[ix]  Page, Tim. The Glenn Gould Reader. New York: Faber,1984.

[x]  divinity here refers to the better part of individual human nature, which for Gould is the introspectively and ecstatically contemplative part     

[xi]  Payzant, Geoffrey. Glenn Gould: Music and Mind. Toronto, 1978


One could find the books, scores, articles and CDs that follow in the collection of the Library.

Bibliography

Canning, Nancy. Α  Glenn Gould catalog. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1992

Jonathan, Cott. Conversations with Glenn Gould. Boston: Little Brown, 1984

Schneider, Michael. Glenn Gould, piano solo: aria et trente variations. Paris: Gallimard, 1994

Bazzana, Kevin. Glenn Gould: the performer in the work: study in performance practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997

John P. L., Roberts and Ghyslaine, Guertin. Glenn Gould: selected letters. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1992

Tim, Page. The Glenn Gould reader. London: Faber and Faber, 1987, c1984

Sachs, Harvey. Virtuoso. Thames and Hudson, 1982

Mach, Elyse. Great contemporary pianists speak for themselves. New York: Dover Publications, 1991

Kostelanetz, Richard and Darby, Joseph. Classic essays on twentieth-century music: a continuing symposium. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996

Fiebig, Paul. Uber Beethoven: von Musikern, Dichtern und Liebhabern: eine Anthologie. Stuttgart: P. Reclam, 1993

Schaal, Susanne und Schader, Luitgard. Uber Hindemith: Aufsatze zu Werk, Aesthetik und Interpretation. Mainz: Schott, 1996

Cook, Nicholas John. Structure and performance timing in Bach’s C minor prelude (WTCI): An empirical study. Music Analysis: Vol. 6; Issue 3; Oct. 1987; pp. 257-272

Gould, Glenn. Glenn Gould interviews himself about Beethoven. Piano Quarterly: Vol. 79; Fall 1972; pp. 2-5

Gould, Glenn. Did we really hear him? Piano Quarterly: Vol. XXXIV/135; Winter 1986; pp. 60-63

Kallmann, Helmut. The music collection of the National Library of Canada. Fontes Artis Musicae: Vol. 34; Issue 4; Oct-Dec. 1987; pp. 174-184

New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd Edition, ed.by S. Sadie), vol. 10, “Glenn Gould”, (London, Macmillan, 2001), pp. 212-213.

The Oxford Companion to Music, ed. by  Latham, Alison, “Glenn Gould”, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp.533

Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, (Centennial Edition, ed. by Slominsky, Nicolas), vol.2, “Glenn Gould”. New York, Schirmer, 2001, pp.1336

Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (MGG); zweite neubearbeitere Ausgabe; herausgegeben von Finscher, Ludwig, Bd. 7, Kassel, Barenreiter, 2002, pp. 1416-1418

Wagner, Richard. Siegfried-Idyll (WWW 103); in einer Klaviertranskription von Glenn Gould. Mainz: Schott, 2003

 

Discography

The Glenn Gould edition (vols. 35). New York: Sony Classical, 1993

Glenn Gould. Great pianists of the 20th century; vol. 39. Netherlands: Philips, 1999

 

Links

www.glenngould.com  (the official Glenn Gould web site)

www.glenngould.ca  (the Glenn Gould Foundation)

www.glenngouldstudio.cbc.ca

www.collectionscanada.ca/glenngould  (the Glenn Gould Archive)

www.sonyclassical.com/artists/gould

www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mwatts/glenn/articles.html

http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~weinberg/gould.html

http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-68-320/arts_entertainment/glenn_gould/ (videos of Glenn Gould from the archives of CBC)

 

 

   
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